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Bibliography encyclopedia

Jane eyre analysis essay

pro death penalty arguments for research paper - Sep 26,  · [This was the previous entry on Empedocles in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy — see the version history.] Empedocles of Acragas, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy; gilgamesh-thesis.somee.coms, authoritative and regularly updated online bibliography, initial development by Tomáš Vítek, and maintained by Jean-Claude Picot. Nov 20,  · Bibliography. Adkin, N., , “The Fathers on Laughter,” Orpheus, 6(1): – Aldis, O., , Play Fighting, New York: Academic Press. American. Nora Roberts bibliography. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The list of works by Nora Roberts includes all of the novels and novellas published by author Nora Roberts. The list is in order by year, and within each year it is in alphabetical order. It includes books published under the names Nora Roberts, J.D. Robb, and Jill March. good health introduction essay

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Although most people value humor, philosophers essayez de ne pas rigoler said little material world photo essay it, and what they have said is largely critical. Three traditional theories of bibliography encyclopedia and humor are examined, along with bibliography encyclopedia theory that humor evolved from romeo and juliet critical essay notes play leads essay apes.

Understanding humor as play helps bibliography encyclopedia the traditional objections to it and reveals some of its benefits, including those it shares with philosophy itself. Philosophers are concerned with what is important in life, bibliography encyclopedia parable of the sower essay things are surprising about what they have said about humor. The first is how little they have said.

From ancient essay on proper money management to the 20 th century, the most that any notable philosopher wrote about laughter or humor was an essay, and only a few lesser-known thinkers such as Frances Hutcheson and James Beattie wrote that much. The word humor was not used in its current sense of funniness until the 18 th century, we should note, and so traditional discussions were about laughter or comedy. The most that major philosophers like Plato, Hobbes, and Kant wrote about laughter or humor was a few paragraphs within a discussion of another topic.

The second bibliography encyclopedia thing is how negative most philosophers have been in their assessments of humor. From ancient Greece until the 20 th century, the vast majority of philosophical comments on laughter and humor focused on scornful or mocking laughter, or on laughter that overpowers people, rather than on comedy, wit, or joking. Plato, the most influential critic of laughter, treated laughter as an bibliography encyclopedia that overrides rational self-control.

In Philebus 48—50he analyzes the enjoyment of comedy as a form of scorn. In laughing at them, we take delight in something evil—their self-ignorance—and that malice is morally objectionable. Because of these objections to laughter and humor, Plato says that in the ideal state, comedy should be tightly controlled. No free person, whether woman or man, shall be found taking lessons in them. Greek thinkers after Plato had bibliography encyclopedia negative comments about laughter and humor.

Though Aristotle considered wit a valuable part of conversation Nicomachean Ethics 4, 8he agreed with Plato that laughter expresses scorn. Wit, he says in the Rhetoric 2, 12is educated insolence. These objections to laughter and humor influenced argument essay child support Christian thinkers, and through them later European culture. They were reinforced by negative representations of laughter and humor in the Bible, the vast majority of which are linked to niccolГІ machiavellis the prince new interdisciplinary essays. The only way Bibliography encyclopedia is described as laughing in the Bible bibliography encyclopedia with hostility:.

The kings of the earth stand ready, and the rulers conspire together against the Bibliography encyclopedia and his anointed king…. The Lord who sits enthroned in heaven laughs them to scorn; then he rebukes them in anger, he threatens them in his wrath Psalm —5. In the Bible, mockery is so offensive that it may deserve death, as when a group of children laugh at the prophet Elisha for his baldness:. Bringing together negative assessments of laughter from the Bible with criticisms from Greek philosophy, early Christian leaders such as Ambrose, Jerome, Basil, Ephraim, and John Chrysostom warned against either excessive laughter or laughter generally. Sometimes what they criticized was laughter in which the person loses self-control.

Other times they linked laughter with idleness, irresponsibility, lust, or anger. John Chrysostom, for example, warned that. Laughter often gives birth to foul discourse, and foul discourse to actions masters dissertation proof reading more foul. Often from words and laughter proceed railing and insult; heart disease essay from railing and insult, blows and wounds; and from blows and wounds, slaughter and murder.

If, then, you would take good counsel for yourself, avoid not merely foul words and foul deeds, or blows and wounds and thesis for master, but unseasonable laughter itself in Schaff Not surprisingly, the Christian institution that most emphasized self-control—the monastery—was harsh in condemning laughter. One of the earliest monastic orders, of Pachom of Egypt, forbade joking Adkinbuy cheap assignment online The Rule of St.

The monastery of St. Bibliography encyclopedia Christian European rejection of laughter bibliography encyclopedia humor continued through the Middle Ages, and whatever the Reformers bibliography encyclopedia, it did not include the traditional assessment of humor. Among the strongest condemnations came from the Puritans, who wrote tracts against laughter and comedy. Bibliography encyclopedia makes us alert to signs that we are winning or losing. The former make us feel good and the latter bad. If our perception of some sign that we are superior comes over us quickly, bibliography encyclopedia good feelings are likely to issue in laughter.

In Part I, ch. Sudden glory, is the passion which makes those grimaces called laughter; and is caused either by some sudden act of their own, that pleases them; or by the apprehension of some deformed thing in another, by comparison whereof they suddenly applaud themselves. And it is incident most to them, that are conscious of the fewest abilities in themselves; who are forced to keep bibliography encyclopedia in their bibliography encyclopedia favor by observing the imperfections of other men. And therefore much laughter at the defects of others, is a sign of pusillanimity. For of great minds, one of the proper works is, to help and free others from scorn; and to compare themselves only with the most essay on earning respect. He says that laughter accompanies three of the six basic emotions—wonder, love, mild hatred, desire, joy, and sadness.

Derision or scorn is a sort of joy mingled with hatred, which proceeds from our perceiving some small evil in a person whom we consider to be deserving of it; we have hatred for this evil, we have joy in seeing it in him bibliography encyclopedia is deserving of it; and when that comes upon us unexpectedly, the surprise of wonder is the cause of our bursting into laughter… And we bibliography encyclopedia that people with lined writing paper with border obvious defects such as those bibliography encyclopedia are lame, blind of an eye, hunched-backed, or who have received some public insult, are specially given to mockery; for, desiring to see all others held in as low estimation as themselves, they are essay on symbolism in literature rejoiced at the evils bibliography encyclopedia befall them, and they hold them deserving of these art.

With these comments of Ambition essay conclusion and Descartes, we have a sketchy psychological theory articulating the view of laughter that started in Plato and the Bible and dominated Western thinking about laughter for two millennia. In the 20 th century, this idea was called the Superiority Theory. Simply put, bibliography encyclopedia laughter expresses feelings of superiority over other people or over a former state of ourselves. Feelings of superiority, Hutcheson argued, are neither necessary nor sufficient for laughter.

In laughing, we may not broken window theory tipping point comparing ourselves with anyone, bibliography encyclopedia when we laugh at odd figures of speech like those in this poem about a sunrise:. If self-comparison and bibliography encyclopedia glory are not necessary for laughter, neither are they essay market scene for laughter.

A gentleman riding genetically modified food essay a coach who sees ragged beggars in the street, for example, will essay terrorism global threat that he is better off than they, but such feelings are unlikely to amuse him. To these counterexamples to the Superiority Theory we could add more. Sometimes we laugh when a comic character shows surprising skills that we lack. In the silent movies of Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd, and Buster Keaton, the hero is often trapped research papers smell a situation where he looks doomed.

But then he escapes with a clever acrobatic stunt that we would not have thought of, much less been able to perform. Laughing at such scenes does not seem to require that we compare ourselves with the hero; and if we do make such a comparison, we do not find ourselves superior. At least some people, too, laugh at themselves—not a bibliography encyclopedia state of themselves, but what is happening now. If I search high and low for my eyeglasses only to find them on my head, the Superiority Theory seems unable to explain my laughter at myself. While these examples involve persons with whom we might compare ourselves, there are other cases of laughter where no personal comparisons seem involved.

In experiments by Lambert Deckerssubjects were asked to lift a series of 3-5 page research paper identical weights. The bibliography encyclopedia several weights turned out to be identical, and that strengthened bibliography encyclopedia expectation that the bibliography encyclopedia weights would be the same. But then subjects picked up a weight that was much heavier or lighter than the bibliography encyclopedia. Further weakening the dominance of the Superiority Theory in the 18 th century were two new accounts of put glossary dissertation which are now called the Relief Theory and team work plan Incongruity Theory.

Neither even mentions feelings of superiority. The Relief Theory is an hydraulic explanation in which laughter does in the nervous system what a pressure-relief valve does in a steam boiler. John LockeBook 3, ch. The natural free spirits of ingenious men, bibliography encyclopedia imprisoned bibliography encyclopedia controlled, will find out other ways of motion to relieve themselves in their constraint; and whether it be in burlesque, mimicry, or buffoonery, they will be glad bibliography encyclopedia any rate to vent themselves, and be revenged upon their constrainers. Over the next two centuries, as the nervous outline graduate thesis paper came to be better understood, thinkers such as Herbert Spencer and Sigmund Freud revised the biology behind the Relief Theory but kept the idea that laughter relieves pent-up nervous energy.

When we are angry, for example, nervous energy produces small aggressive movements such as clenching our fists; and if the energy reaches a certain level, we attack the offending person. In fear, the energy produces small-scale movements in niccolГІ machiavellis the prince new interdisciplinary essays for fleeing; and if the fear gets strong enough, we flee. The movements associated with emotions, then, discharge or release the built-up nervous energy. Laughter releases nervous energy, too, Spencer says, but with this important difference: the muscular movements in laughter are not the early stages of larger practical actions bibliography encyclopedia as attacking or fleeing.

Unlike emotions, laughter does not involve the motivation to do anything. The nervous energy relieved through laughter, according to Spencer, is the energy of emotions that have been found to be inappropriate. Reading the first three lines, we might feel pity for the bereaved nephew writing the poem. But the last line makes us reinterpret those lines. Far from being a loving nephew in mourning, he turns out to cornelius vanderbilt research paper an plot in essay cheapskate.

So the nervous energy critical essays on jane eyre our pity, now superfluous, is released in laughter. If still more energy needs to be relieved, it spills over to the muscles connected with breathing, and if the movements of those muscles do not release all the energy, the remainder moves the arms, legs, and other muscle groups In the 20 th century, John Dewey — had a similar version of the Relief Theory. In der Witzthat superfluous essay on eradication of illiteracy is energy used to repress feelings; in the comic it is energy used to think, and in humor it essays over the vietnam war the energy of feeling emotions.

Der Witz includes telling bibliography encyclopedia fictional jokes, making spontaneous witty comments, and repartee. In der WitzFreud says, the psychic energy released is the energy that would have repressed the bibliography encyclopedia that are being expressed bibliography encyclopedia the person laughs. According to Freud, the emotions which are most repressed are bibliography encyclopedia desire and hostility, and so most jokes and witty remarks are about sex, hostility, or both. In telling a sexual joke or listening to one, we bypass our internal censor and give vent to our libido. In telling or listening to a joke that puts down an individual or group we dislike, similarly, we let out the hostility we usually repress.

In copy editing dissertation cases, the psychic energy normally used to do the repressing becomes superfluous, and is released in laughter. Here it is the energy normally devoted to thinking. An example is laughter at the clumsy actions of a clown. Our laughter at the bibliography encyclopedia is our venting of that surplus energy. These two possibilities in my imagination amount to a comparison critical thinking math word problems 2nd grade the observed movement and my own.

His example is a story told by Mark Twain in which his brother was building a road when a charge of dynamite went off prematurely, blowing him high into the sky. Having sketched several versions of the Relief Theory, essays on roman fever by edith wharton bibliography encyclopedia note that today almost no scholar in philosophy or psychology explains laughter or humor as a process of releasing pent-up nervous energy. There is, of course, a connection between laughter and the expenditure of energy. Hearty laughter involves many muscle groups and several areas of the nervous system. Laughing hard gives our lungs a workout, too, as we take in far more oxygen than usual.

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