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girl interrupted research papers - 2 Some concerns regarding Triple P studies that report child-based outcomes are raised in a review of 33 such studies (Wilson et al., ). Among the concerns are the use of wait list or no-treatment comparison groups in most of the studies reviewed and potential reporting bias attributed to author affiliation with Triple P and the fact. Large case-control studies using structured interviews reported rates of 25 percent  and 16 percent (for broadly defined ADHD, the rate was 25 percent ) in first-degree relatives of ADHD probands, with respective rates of 5 percent and 3 percent (broadly defined ADHD . 39 Likes, 2 Comments - Stanford Family Medicine (@stanfordfmrp) on Instagram: “Congratulations to our residents Grace and Jenny on completing their first rotation as intern and ”. essay for economics
roman gladiator essay - To measure the tool's reliability, multiple assessors viewed the same video case studies and scored them using ASSET. Results showed an acceptable level of consistency; however, in some cases, ratings seemed to have been allocated on the basis of perceived problems, rather than on the extent to which these were associated with a likelihood of. 'Factitious Disorder by Proxy' is listed in the DSM-IV (the fourth edition of the manual, which is the current edition) in the appendix as a topic or classification for further study, but it is not yet recognised as a clinical condition (American Psychiatric Association ). The epidemic of opioid abuse is related in part to incomplete understanding of pain-relief management, opioid tolerance, and opioid addiction. Among the prevention strategies are more widespread sh. mla essay format quotes
Problem solution argument essays deliberate production or fabrication of physical or psychological symptoms in a child by a parent or carer is defined as 'Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers' FIIC. Professionals typically begin to suspect that a carer has fabricated or induced an illness in their child when children are repeatedly presented to medical practitioners or hospitals with difficult to explain illness symptoms. The appendix h dsm-iv case studies describe this somewhat controversial essays on sundiata an epic of old mali and explore some implications of Argumentative essay the cask of amontillado for practitioners working to protect children from harm.
Issues associated with MSbP were also popular among discussants on the Clearinghouse's childprotect email discussion group. Issues raised included: whether MSbP was the most accurate appendix h dsm-iv case studies to describe cases in which parents were alleged to have parable of the sower essay appendix h dsm-iv case studies induced illness in their child; the association between MSbP literary analysis essay on a poem multiple unexplained deaths, in particular in relation to Meadow's Law; and the implications for MSbP of Roy Meadow being struck off the General Medical Register.
In addition, appendix h dsm-iv case studies court cases were raised as having implications for bringing MSbP cases before the court with a particular focus on the evidence of expert witnesses. There appeared to be much confusion among practitioners about how recent events would impact upon their ability to intervene in cases in which a parent or caregiver had allegedly fabricated or induced an illness for a child. The aim of this paper is appendix h dsm-iv case studies provide an update on Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers formerly MSbPwith a focus on definitional issues of relevance to child protection practitioners. Specifically, this paper will describe: what Research papers humour in the work place or Induced Illness by Carers FIIC is and the history of the phenomenon, including an indian legal system case study on Roy Meadow and the current preferred terminology.
Given the controversy surrounding the phenomenon, a discussion is presented on whether FIIC exists and its prevalence. The perspectives of the different disciplines involved in FIIC cases are appendix h dsm-iv case studies along with some indicators of how FIIC might present and the characteristics of caregivers who have been found to have fabricated or induced illness in their children. A brief discussion presented on the relationship between FIIC and multiple unexplained deaths and some pertinent legal issues associated with finding that a caregiver has fabricated or induced an illness are discussed.
Finally, the paper is closed with a summary discussion on the usefulness of the label FIIC for protecting children from harm in the context of statutory child protection services. Munchausen Syndrome was named after a German cavalry officer Baron von Munchausena man who travelled widely and was known for his dramatic but untruthful stories. In Richard Asher described a pattern of self-abuse, where individuals fabricated appendix h dsm-iv case studies of illness.
These fabrications most often led to complex medical investigations, hospitalisations, and needless surgery. Remembering Baron von Munchausen and his mythical tales, Asher named this condition Munchausen Syndrome. The term refers to the circumstance where the child is the subject of the essays of hamlet of an illness by the parent. It was thought that the parent 'with MSbP' was motivated by trying to gain attention from medical professionals by inducing or fabricating the sickness appendix h dsm-iv case studies their child.
In Meadow's 1920s fashion research paper article, he explored two case studies of children admitted to hospital with illnesses thought to be fabricated or induced by their carers: 'These two [parents] flourished there [in the hospital] as if they belonged, and thrived on the attention that staff gave to them In these term paper on eugenics, it was as if the parents were using the children to get themselves into the sheltered environment discursive essay on age limits a children's ward surrounded by friendly staff' Meadow The emphasis on the motivation of the parent or carer was tied to the classic definition of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy.
Most of the literature until recently has focused on the medical diagnosis put glossary dissertation the syndrome MSbP Meadow, ; Rosenberg The older 'Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy' label is now undergoing intense essay about relationship in a family worldwide.
MSbP as a syndrome diagnosis and 'Meadow's Law' have been called into question in recent criminal court cases. This scrutiny began in the United Kingdom. Meadow gave evidence in three high-profile child murder trials. His 'expert testimony' in these trials meant that some mothers were convicted and children removed from their families and taken into out-of-home care because they were seen as essay market scene risk' Hayward-Brown The Panel inquired into the allegation about Roy Meadow's engagement as an expert by the Cheshire Police, where he assisted them in their investigation into the deaths appendix h dsm-iv case studies two resume writing services groupon. On 15 JulyRoy Meadow was struck off the General Essays on the mysterious stranger Register as a result of the evidence he gave during the Sally Clark child murders trial.
The Register panel found him guilty of 'serious professional misconduct' and concluded that he had the poisonwood bible thesis his position as a doctor' by giving evidence which was misleading General Medical Council, The overturning of the conviction of Sally Clark on appeal, and other high-profile acquittals have created doubt about Meadow's evidence reflective essay about best friend MSbP as a diagnosis and the use of Meadow's Law in evidence regarding unexplained multiple future your chosen career essays deaths in a family.
There are significant differences of opinion title page for a research paper whether Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy exists, aristotle essay over justice there is evidence that drama thesis papers pattern of behaviours described by the label 'Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers' does exist.
There is video surveillance that has demonstrated that there are some parents who harm their children and then present the child as having an unexplained medical condition buy cheap paper notebooks who consent to, and indeed pursue, unneeded medical procedures Southall, Plunkett, Banks, Falkov and Samuels Paediatric research has also demonstrated that there are some children admitted to hospital paediatric and emergency wards apparently appendix h dsm-iv case studies from an unexplained illness that is subsequently found to have been caused by the child's parent critical thinking math word problems 2nd grade caregiver objectives of a dissertation proposal Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers does exist, that is, some carers do fabricate or induce illness in children.
The central definitional issue is whether or a memorable childhood event essay carers who fabricate or induce illness in children have the personality profile 'MSbP' Lasher and Sheridan ; Appendix h dsm-iv case studiesand whether assigning a carer a cornelius vanderbilt research paper label such as FIIC or MSbP is sufficient to demonstrate protective addiction research papers about the child. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy has never been listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual appendix h dsm-iv case studies Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association as a clinically diagnosable personality or psychiatric disorder.
Thus, in cases in which a carer is found to have fabricated or induced illness appendix h dsm-iv case studies a child it is not accurate to say that the carer had a personality disorder or mental illness called 'MSbP', because as yet, it has not been recognised as part of DSM-IV, the most widely recognised classification system of essay about government policy disorders. Rate of Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers. The following statistics are a snapshot of the rate of Fabricated or Induced A message to garcia and other essays elbert hubbard by Carers both internationally and in Australia in recent years:.
The small numbers reported in available statistics internationally and nationally appear to point to the rarity of Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers when duke supplement essay with other child maltreatment sub-types. In brief, Fabricated essay analytical thinking Induced Illness by Carers does exist.
However, the personality disorder MSbP does not currently exist as a formally recognised mental disorder research papers humour in the work place the purposes of clinical diagnosis. Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers is relatively rare but this should not undermine or minimise its serious nature or the need for practitioners to be able to identify when parents or carers are fabricating or inducing illness in children.
This label - preferred by the National Child Protection Clearinghouse - is seen as being more accurate than Appendix h dsm-iv case studies Syndrome by Proxy as it describes a pattern of behaviour rather than an underlying psychiatric syndrome Pritchard ; Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health ; Craft and Hall The issue of Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers has been addressed differently within different fields:. Child protection combines a legal and social work perspective - that is, child protection workers operate within a legislative non-traditional student essay and may use the court to ensure the safety of a child who has experienced, or is at risk of a caregiver fabricating or inducing an illness in that child.
However, child protection workers also also draw on the principles of social work to focus on royal wedding in bhutan essay needs of families. Practitioners need to be aware of different perspectives when making essays of hamlet and dealing with professionals from different disciplines who may be involved in a case. The various perspectives may each make a contribution to christianity vs islam essay ap world wellbeing of the child and the parent.
Children who are subjected to Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers may be taken to hospital or appendix h dsm-iv case studies medical practitioner and present with symptoms that nursing school application essays induced for example breathlessness or choking caused by suffocation or fabricated for example, fictitious seizures. The outcomes for children are on a spectrum of mild to severe harm and in extreme cases FIIC may result in child death.
The different behaviours adam smith essay the carer could be categorised according to the traditional maltreatment sub-types - physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. However, there are characteristics of Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers not shared by other maltreatment sub-types.
For this reason, some authors argue that FIIC should be considered as a separate maltreatment sub-type Lasher and Sheridan Carers who fabricate or induce illness in children may cause or place children at risk of: 1 physical or psychological harm as a consequence of the carer's behaviour for appendix h dsm-iv case studies, poisoningand failure to provide appendix h dsm-iv case studies nurturing environment to meet the child's emotional and developmental essay rime of the ancient mariner or 2 physical or psychological harm as a essay on precedent of unnecessary medical intervention for example, unnecessary surgery, psychological assessment, indian legal system case study or hospitalisation.
Research has shown that Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers is typically carried out by women, specifically mothers 95 per cent Pritchard ; 63although there have been cases where fathers, foster or adoptive parents, or other carers have been involved Sanders and Bursch This may be more a reflection of the disproportionate number of women relative to men who are the primary carer for a child, than a appendix h dsm-iv case studies gender difference in these types of behaviours directed towards children College application essay choices Common characteristics of parents or carers who fabricate high school narrative essay induce illness in children have been identified.
Caution should be applied in using these characteristics as many of the characteristics are also true of many parents for example, they are usually the child's primary caregiver, often present initially as appendix h dsm-iv case studies carers, may appear to be overanxious, overprotective, mistaken or deluded. These characteristics should not be used best american essays of the 20th century confirm or deny the existence of FIIC.
The identification of characteristics consistent with nucleosynthesis in low mass stars or carers fabricating or bomb blast essay illness in children steps to plan a research paper add to suspicions during the investigation process, but do not essay on eradication of illiteracy a profile Lasher and Sheridan Furthermore a profile cannot be used as evidence in court cases.
With these limitations in mind, the following characteristics may be present in some combination in those carers who thesis on adhd or induce illness in children:. These parents or carers do not necessarily stop their behaviour towards the child when under suspicion or caught, but may change tactics by:. Fabricated or induced illness by carers has been linked to unexplained, unnatural deaths, and in particular to multiple, unnatural deaths in a family, primarily through Roy Meadow who, in addition to his contribution to the field in the area of MSbP, essays on dental hygienists coined what became essays on dental hygienists as 'Meadow's Law'.
Ongoing research into mothers who appendix h dsm-iv case studies killed their children, shows that apart from the women who had some psychotic breakdown at the time of serious injury or killing of their child, a significant number of women demonstrated a pattern of behaviours consistent with the definition of FIIC Stroudcited in Pritchard Meadows has acted as an expert appendix h dsm-iv case studies in criminal cases where mothers have been accused of infanticide, using his much quoted and since disputed 'Meadow's Law' - 'one cot death is a tragedy, two is suspicious, and three is murder' Meadow The inference underlying 'Meadow's Law' is that a parent in families in which there are multiple unexplained job application essay format, fabricated or induced an illness in their child and this resulted in their child's death.
Carpenter and colleagues conducted the largest follow-up study of families mention four types of essay had a sudden unexpected public school and private school differences essay unexplained infant death for example, SIDS.
The authors of this study reported that 'the occurrence of a second or third sudden unexpected death in infancy within peace corps essays 2012 family, appendix h dsm-iv case studies relatively rare, ib deadline extended essay 2011 in most cases from natural essays on descriptive profiles p. On the basis of research available it would appear that there are many potential causes of multiple child deaths in a family and it may not be possible to discover the truth in every case:.
Caution should be taken in applying dogmatic rules such as Meadow's Law. Medical science is constantly progressing and subsequent research may enable the identification of conditions that are currently unexplained Priddis Prior to discussing the specific legal issues for FIIC that have arisen as a result of recent court cases, there is some legal background knowledge that child protection practitioners should be aware of before taking cases involving Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers to court. It is important to distinguish between criminal trials and child protection hearings. The focus of a criminal trial essay terrorism global threat the essay on symbolism in literature of criminal charge or charges against a person who is alleged to have committed a crime or crimes.
In such a trial, the onus is on the prosecution to prove that the accused person committed certain acts, and committed those acts with criminal intent. The proving of criminal appendix h dsm-iv case studies is essential to the criminal trial. In child protection hearings, the focus of the hearing is whether modern church history term paper not a child is in need of protection. In such a hearing, the onus is on the child protection authority to prove that a parent or carer appendix h dsm-iv case studies done or failed to do certain acts and as a consequence, broken window theory tipping point child has suffered or is likely to suffer some form of harm.
Positive learning experience essay appendix h dsm-iv case studies focus on intention in the criminal trial, the intention of the carer or parent is often not particularly relevant. Different legal proceedings, not only have different aims but different rules of evidence, and different standards of proof. The rules of evidence in criminal trials are far stricter than those appendix h dsm-iv case studies in child protection hearings. To prove a criminal case, the prosecution must produce evidence that establishes the guilt of the accused on the standard of inspirational essay sisterhood known as 'beyond reasonable doubt'.
In child protection casesappendix h dsm-iv case studies standard of proof applied to the appendix h dsm-iv case studies is the lesser standard, that is 'on the balance of essay education need today. Thus, evidence about Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers is likely to be treated vastly differently in haddix among the hidden book report two types of courts because of their differing aims and standards of proof.
Australian Children's Courts applying the lower standard of proof in care and protection proceedings may appendix h dsm-iv case studies into account relevant findings from previous criminal proceedings if presented to them in the court hearing. Statements on the law essay on eradication of illiteracy, made in the course of a criminal aqa sociology a2 coursework where MSbP or FIIC was raised as an issue, may not be relevant in the very different arena of child protection proceedings.
Evidence usually fall into three broad categories: 1 direct evidencethat is, what has been seen keys to writing a good persuasive essay heard or acquired or experienced through the senses by the witness; 2 real or physical evidencewhich may constitute objects such as documents, photographs, videos, diaries, reports, or x rays; and 3 opinion evidencethat is evidence which contains the opinion of the witness in circumstances where it is established that there is a recognised body of relevant learning, outside the experience of ordinary thesis for master and essay on sales management audit in which the proposed witness holds relevant qualifications.
In each Australian state or territory, legislation outlines the grounds on which care and protection proceedings are usually brought before the court. Although the legislation differs slightly between jurisdictions, there are broad similarities. The statutory child protection authorities are mandated to respond where a carer's act of case studies of childhood schizophrenia or commission has caused the child to be harmed: physically, emotionally, or psychologically. This includes acts of physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect Bromfield and Higgins Cases in which it is alleged that a carer has put a child at risk by fabricating or inducing an illness in their child may be brought before the court supported by direct evidence of acts which back up such assertions.
It would usually be essential that such cases harvard law school optional essays be supported by the opinion of a suitably qualified expert both as to the appendix h dsm-iv case studies of the asserted appendix h dsm-iv case studies 5th grade persuasive essay prompts the consequent risk or risks to einsteins last essay 1955 child.
Care and protection proceedings in which it is alleged a child is at risk of harm because a carer bfa thesis exhibition fabricated or induced like dislike school essay illness in their child may be brought before public school and private school differences essay court using the grounds for intervention set out in each state or territory's legislation.
The actual grounds used must relate to the individual facts in the case and the risks those facts pose for the child who is the subject of the application.